The Treaty of
December 21, 1911
The Persian and Ottoman
Governments, inspired by a common desire to avoid henceforward
any subjects of controversy in respect of their common frontiers,
having instructed the Persian Minister for Foreign Affairs and
the Turkish Ambassador at Tehran, respectively, to establish the
bases of negotiations and the procedure to be followed for the
delimitation of the said frontiers, the undersigned, after
discussion, have agreed on the following points:
I. A Commission consisting of an equal number of delegates of
either Party shall meet as early as possible at Constantinople.
II. The delegates of the two Governments, furnished with all the
documents and evidence in support of their claims, shall be
instructed to establish the boundary line separating the two
countries in a spirit of sincere impartiality; after which a
technical commission shall have merely to apply the definite
delimitation on the spot, on the basis laid down by the former
III. The work of the Joint Commission, which will meet at
Constantinople, shall be based on the clauses of the treaty known
as the Treaty of Erzerum, concluded in 1847.
IV. Should the delegates of the two Parties fail to agree on the
interpretation and application of certain clauses of that treaty,
it is agreed that, at the end of a period of six months of
negotiation, in order completely to settle the question of the
delimitation of the frontiers, all the points on which any
divergence exists shall be submitted together to the Court of
Arbitration at The Hague, in order that the entire question may
thus be definitely settled.
V. It is understood that neither of the two Parties may adduce
the military occupation of the territories in dispute as a legal
Done in duplicate and exchanged in original between the
undersigned acting on behalf of their Governments.
The Imperial Ottoman Embassy, Tehran, 21 December 1911
(signed) Wossughed-Dowleh (signed) H. Hassib.
The Treaty of
May 31, 1847
The two Mussulman Powers waive the totality of their existing
pecuniary claims on one another provided always that nothing in
this arrangement shall affect the provisions made for the
settlement of the claim to which Article 4 relates.
The Persian Government undertake to cede to the Ottoman
Government all the lowlands - that is to say, the land in the
western part of the province of Zohab; and the Ottoman Government
undertakes to cede to the Persian Government the eastern - that
is to say, all the mountainous - part of the said province,
including the Kirind Valley.
The Persian Government abandons all claim to the city and
province of Suleimani, and formally undertake not to interfere
with or infringe the sovereign rights of the Ottoman Government
over the said province.
The Ottoman Government formally recognizes the unrestricted
sovereignty of the Persian Government over the city and port of
Muhammara, the island of Khizr, the anchorage, and the land on
the eastern bank - that is to say, the left bank - of the
Shatt-al-Arab, which are in the possession of tribes recognized
as belonging to Persia. Further, Persian vessels shall have the
right to navigate freely without let or hindrance on the
Shatt-al-Arab from the mouth of the same to the point of contact
of the frontiers of the two Parties.
The two contracting Parties, having abandoned their other
territorial claims, as by the present treaty, entangle themselves
to immediately nominate commissioners and engineers from both
sides, as to determine the frontiers between the two states, and
this in conformity with the precedent article.
It is respectively decided that commissioners will be immediately
nominated from each side, to judge and regulate equitably the
questions of damages endured by both sides, since the acceptance
of the amiable propositions traced and communicated by the two
Big Power mediators, in the month of Jemazigyu-al-awal 1261, as
well as those of the right of pasture since the year when (their
payment) was deferred.
The Ottoman Government promises to fix at Brousse the residence
of the fugitif Persian Princes, and not to allow them to absent
themselves from the above-mentioned place, neither to entertain
clandestine relationships with Persia. As the two High Powers
engage themselves in conformity with the precedent Treaty of
Erzurum, the other fugitives are restored.
Persian merchants shall pay the customs' dues on their goods, in
kind or in cash, according to the current present value of such
goods, in the manner specified in the article relating to trade
in the Treaty of Erzurum concluded in 1238. No additional charge
whatsoever shall be levied over and above the amounts fixed in
the said Treaty.
The Ottoman Government undertakes to accord the requisite
privileges to enable Persian pilgrims, in accordance with the
former treaties, to visit the Holy Places in the Ottoman
dominions in complete safety and without vexatious treatment of
any kind. Further, the Ottoman Government, being desirous of
strengthening and consolidating the bonds of friendship and
concord which should subsist between the two Mussulman Powers and
between their respective subjects, undertakes to adopt such
measures as may be most appropriate to ensure the participation,
not only of Persian pilgrims, but of all other Persian subjects,
in all the said privileges in the Ottoman dominions, in such
manner as to protect them from any sort of injustice,
molestation, or incivility, whether in respect of their
commercial activities or in any other respect.
Furthermore, the Ottoman Government undertakes to recognize
Consuls to be appointed by the Persian Government in places in
the Ottoman dominions where their presence may be required on
account of commercial interests, or for the protection of Persian
merchants and other Persian subjects, save only in Mecca the
Revered and Medina the Resplendent, and to respect in the case of
the said Consuls all the privileges due in virtue of their
official character and accorded to Consuls of other friendly
The Persian Government, for its part, undertakes to accord
reciprocity of treatment in every respect to Consuls to be
appointed by the Ottoman Government in places in Persia in which
the latter may consider the appointment of Consuls to be
necessary, as also to Ottoman merchants and other Ottoman
subjects visiting Persia.
The two High Contracting Mussulman Powers undertake to adopt and
enforce the measures necessary to prevent and punish theft and
brigandage on the part of the tribes and peoples settled on the
frontier, to which end they will quarter troops in suitable
localities. They further undertake to do their duty in respect of
all forms of aggressive acts, such as pillage, robbery, or
murder, which may occur in their respective territories.
Contested tribes, the suzerainty over which is not known shall be
left free by the two high Contracting Powers to choose once for
all and specify the localities which they will henceforward
always inhabit. Tribes, the suzerainty over which is known shall
be compelled to come within the territory of the State to which
All points of articles of previous treaties, and especially of
the Treaty concluded at Erzurum in 1238, which are not
specifically amended or annulled by the present Treaty, are
hereby reaffirmed in respect of any and all of their provisions,
as if they were reproduced in their entirety in the present
The two High Contracting Powers agree that, when the texts of
this Treaty have been exchanged, they will accept and sign the
same, and that the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged
within the space of two months, or earlier.
Selections from the
Iraqi-Iranian Dispute, p127-129
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